What makes some pharmacies more successful than others at implementing pharmacist-prescribed contraception care? To answer this question, we conducted a study to determine the extent of hormonal contraceptive prescribing, also referred to as furnishing in California, among San Francisco community pharmacies, and identify the factors that led to successful implementation.
Implementation in San Francisco pharmacies
After calling all 113 community and independent pharmacies located in San Francisco, we identified 21 locations (19%) that furnished hormonal contraception. Only one of these was an independent pharmacy; the rest were chain community pharmacies. Half or more of Costco, CVS, and Safeway locations furnished hormonal contraception, while less than 5% of Walgreens and independent pharmacies did so.
Factors associated with successful adoption
Within the control of pharmacies
We identified three main factors that led to successful implementation that were within pharmacy control. The first was a company protocol—respondents stated that having an established precedent and administrative support, and paying for pharmacists’ training, was crucial for successful implementation. The second was advertising, due to the community’s limited awareness of this service. Lastly, the accessibility of pharmacists played a role in increasing access to services and to hormonal contraception.
Relating to the setting or larger community
We also identified factors leading to successful implementation outside the control of pharmacies. These included the location of the pharmacy and its patient population, as well as collaboration with local clinics. Pharmacies in proximity to students and other younger and short-term residents found there was more need for hormonal contraceptive furnishing services. One pharmacy had an existing collaboration with a local clinic and its providers that acted as a bridge to the service.
Barriers to service adoption
Respondents also reported several barriers to successful implementation. The cost of consultation for patients was a widespread concern. Lack of time was another barrier reported by many pharmacists, which could be resolved through scheduled appointments or more overlaps of pharmacist shifts. The last identified barrier was patient privacy. Many respondents expressed a need for a private consultation room in order to provide a confidential service, and those that had a private consultation room acknowledged this as a benefit.
Effect of COVID-19 on furnishing
Our data collection began in April 2020, shortly after the introduction of San Francisco’s shelter-in-place order. We asked study participants to comment on whether practices or demand for hormonal contraception had changed under the shelter-in-place order and responses were mixed. While some pharmacies reported an increase in demand for hormonal contraceptive furnishing, others reposted a decrease.
Implications for the future
We found an increase in participation among pharmacies in San Francisco that were furnishing hormonal contraception than previously reported in California overall; 19% in San Francisco in 2020 versus 11% statewide in 2017. This finding could reflect either pharmacies adding this service gradually over time or a local phenomenon. However, CVS pharmacists reported that a new corporate protocol was initiated in 2020, suggesting the higher rate of furnishing we identified could be reflected statewide. Our results detailed successful strategies used by San Francisco community pharmacies that could serve as a model for expanding this service to other pharmacies. In the words of one respondent:
“The pharmacist is the most overtrained and underutilized health care professional we have.”
With more widespread implementation of this service, community pharmacists can increase their scope of practice, improve quality and continuity of care for patients, and expand access to hormonal contraception to improve reproductive health.
Link to the full paper.
- California Board of Pharmacy 1746.1: Protocol for pharmacists furnishing self- administered hormonal contraception. Link.
- Chen L, Lim J, Jeong A, & Apollonio D. Implementation of hormonal contraceptive furnishing in San Francisco community pharmacies, 2020. Journal of American Pharmacists Association. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2020.07.019
- Gomez AM. Availability of pharmacist-prescribed contraception in California, 2017. JAMA. 2017;318(22):2253e2254.
About the Authors
Lauren Chen, Julie Lim, and Asher Jeong are third-year doctoral students at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) School of Pharmacy. Dorie Apollonio is a professor in the UCSF Department of Clinical Pharmacy.