Research & News Articles

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Pharmacist Interest and Attitudes

  • Beal JL, Ades R, Vernon V, et al. Pharmacists’ perceptions, barriers, and potential solutions to implementing a direct pharmacy access policy in Indiana. Med Care Res Rev. 2020;Epub. Available at:
  • Borrego ME, Short J, House N, et al. New Mexico pharmacists’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward prescribing oral emergency contraception. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2006;46(1):33-43. Available at:
  • DiPietro Mager NA. Fulfilling an unmet need: roles for clinical pharmacists in preconception care. Pharmacotherapy. 2016;36(2):141-151. Available at:
  • DiPietro NA, Bright DR. Medication therapy management and preconception care: opportunities for pharmacist intervention. Innovations in Pharmacy. 2014;5(1):1-9. Available at:
  • El-Ibiary SY, Raney EC, Moos MK. The pharmacist’s role in promoting preconception health. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2014;54(5):e288-e303. Available at:
  • Herman A, McCauley G, Thaxton L, Borrego M, Sussman AL, Espey E. Perspectives on prescribing hormonal contraception among rural New Mexican pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2020;Epub. Available at:
  • Hilverding AT, DiPietro NA. Pharmacists’ attitudes regarding provision of sexual and reproductive health services. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2017;57(40): 493-497. Available at:
  • Hohmann N, Kavookjian J. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to determine pharmacy students’ intention to participate in hormonal contraception counseling services. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2018;10(11):1488-1495. Available at:
  • Landau S, Besinque K, Chung F, et al. Pharmacist interest in and attitudes toward direct pharmacy access to hormonal contraception in the United States. J Am Pharm Assoc 2009;49(1):43-50. Available at:
  • Lio I, Remines J, Nadpara PA, et al. Pharmacists’ comfort level and knowledge about prescribing hormonal contraception in a supermarket chain pharmacy. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2018;58:S89-S93. Available at:
  • McIntosh J, Rafie S, Wasik M, McBane S, Lodise NM, El-Ibiary SY, et al. Changing oral contraceptives from prescription to over-the-counter status: An opinion statement of the Women’s Health Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy 2011;31(4):424-37. Available at:
  • Mospan CM, Balenger SB, Gillette C. Student pharmacists’ perceptions regarding pharmacist-prescribed hormonal contraceptives and their professional responsibility. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2020;Epub. Available at:
  • Ng C, Najjar R, DiPietro Mager N, Rafie S. Pharmacist and student pharmacist perspectives on providing preconception care in the United States. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2018. Available at:
  • Rafie S, Cieri-Hutcherson NE, Frame TR, et al. Pharmacists’ perspectives on prescribing and expanding access to hormonal contraception in pharmacies in the United States. J Pharm Pract 2019. Available at:
  • Rafie S, McIntosh J, Shealy KM, et al. Roles of the pharmacist in the use of safe and highly effective long-acting reversible contraception: an opinion of the Women’s Health Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy 2014;34(9):991-9. Available at:
  • Rafie S, Richards E, Rafie S, Landau SC, Wilkinson TA. Pharmacist outlooks on prescribing hormonal contraception following statewide scope of practice expansion. Pharmacy 2019;7(3). Available at:
  • Rafie S, Stone RH, Wilkinson TA, Borgelt LM, El-Ibiary SY, Ragland D. Role of the community pharmacist in emergency contraception counseling and delivery in the United States: current trends and future prospects. Integr Pharm Res Pract. 2017;6:99-108. Available at:
  • Rodriguez MI, Herman AM, Espey E, et al. Pharmacists’ perspectives and experience prescribing hormonal contraception in rural and urban New Mexico. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2021;Epub. Available at:
  • Rodriguez MI, McConnell KJ, Swartz J, Edelman AB. Pharmacist prescription of hormonal contraception in Oregon: Baseline knowledge and interest in provision. J Am Pharm Assoc 2016;56(5):521-6. Available at:
  • Seamon GJ, Burke A, Tak CR, et al. Role of pharmacists in hormonal contraceptive access: a survey of North Carolina pharmacists. Pharmacy. 2020;8(4):191. Available at:
  • Vu K, Rafie S, Grindlay K, Gutierrez H, Grossman D. Pharmacist intentions to prescribe hormonal contraception following new legislative authority in California. J Pharm Pract. 2019;32(1):54-61. Available at:
  • Wollum A, Zuniga C, Katcher T, Daftary M, Grindlay K. Pharmacists’ perspectives on prescribing hormonal contraception in Washington, DC, with a focus on young people. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2020;60(4):589-97. Available at:
  • Yous T, Allemann S, Lutters M. Extended access to hormonal contraception in pharmacies: a survey among Swiss pharmacists. Pharmacy. 2020;8(4):210. Available at:

Provider and Public Interest and Attitudes


  • Anderson L, Borgelt LM, Clark P, Moore G. Encouraging comprehensive and consistent pharmacist education for provision of contraception. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2018;58(1):113-116. Available at:
  • Harris E, Melody K, Charneski L. Student knowledge and confidence with prescribing hormonal contraception. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2020;12(6):751-62. Available at:
  • Lynch SE, Griffin B, Stewart-Lynch A, Vest KM. Effect of a simulated activity on student ability, preparedness, and confidence in applying the pharmacists’ patient care process to contraceptive prescribing. Pharmacy. 2020;8(3):146. Available at:
  • Lynch SE, Griffin BL, Vest KM. Assessment of a simulated contraceptive prescribing activity for pharmacy students. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2018;10(2):178-184. Available at:
  • Rafie S, El-Ibiary SY. Student pharmacist perspectives on providing pharmacy-access hormonal contraception services. J Am Pharm Assoc 2011;51(6):762-5. Available at:
  • Rim C, El-Ibiary SY, Rafie S, Borgelt LM. Assessment of contraceptive curricula in US pharmacy programs. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2020;12(4):395-9. Available at:
  • Stone RH, Rafie S, Griffin B, Shealy K, Stein AB. Pharmacist self-perception of readiness to prescribe hormonal contraception and additional training needs. Curr Pharm Teach Learn 2020;12(1):27-34. Available at:

Implementation and Experiences

  • Batra P, Rafie S, Zhang Z, et al. An evaluation of the implementation of pharmacist-prescribed hormonal contraceptives in California. Obstet Gynecol 2018;131(5):850-5. Available at:
  • Chen L, Lim J, Jeong A, Apollonio DE. Implementation of hormonal contraceptive furnishing in San Francisco pharmacies.  J Am Pharm Assoc. 2020;60(6):963-8. Available at:
  • Frost TP, Klepser DG, Small DC, Doyle IC. Time and motion study of pharmacist prescribing of oral hormonal contraceptives in Oregon community pharmacies. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2019
  • Gardner JS, Miller L, Downing DF, Le S, Blough D, Shotorbani S. Pharmacist prescribing of hormonal contraceptives: results of the Direct Access study.  J Am Pharm Assoc. 2008;48(2):212-21; 5 p following 221. Available at:
  • Gomez AM. Availability of Pharmacist-Prescribed Contraception in California, 2017. JAMA 2017;318(22):2253-2254. Available at:
  • Gomez AM, McCullough C, Hoff C. Expectations of future provision of pharmacist-prescribed hormonal contraception in California. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018;218(6):627-8. Available at:
  • Gomez AM, McCullough C, Fadda R, et al. Facilitators and barriers to implementing pharmacist prescribed hormonal contraception in California independent pharmacies. Women Health. 2020;60(3):249-9. Available at:
  • Lu S, Rafie S, Jamper J, Strauss R, Kroon L. Characterizing pharmacist-prescribed hormonal contraception services and users in California and Oregon pharmacies. Contraception. 2018. Available at:
  • Meredith AH, Wilkinson TA, Campi JA, et al. Use of the Delphi method to enhance pharmacist contraceptive counseling materials. J Pharm Pract. 2019;Epub. Available at:
  • Mody SK, Rafie S, Hildebrand M, Oakley LP. Exploring emergency contraception prescribing by pharmacists in California. Contraception 2019. Available at:
  • Qato DM, Alexander GC, Guadamuz JS, Trotzky-Sirr R, Lindau ST. Pharmacist-prescribed and over-the-counter hormonal contraception in Los Angeles County retail pharmacies. Health Aff 2020;39(7):1219-28. Available at:
  • Rodriguez MI, Anderson L, Edelman AB. Pharmacists begin prescribing hormonal contraception in Oregon: Implementation of House Bill 2879. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;128(1):168-70. Available at:
  • Rodriguez MI, Biel FM, Swartz JJ, Anderson L, Edelman AB. Pharmacists’ experience with prescribing hormonal contraception in Oregon. J Am Pharm Assoc 2018;58(6):608-613. Available at:
  • Rodriguez MI, Edelman AB, Skye M, Anderson A, Darney BG. Association of pharmacist prescription with dispensed duration of hormonal contraception. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3(5):e205252. Available at:
  • Rodriguez MI, Edelman AB, Skye M, Darney BD. Reasons for and experience in obtaining pharmacist prescribed contraception. Contraception 2020;Epub. Available at:
  • Rodriguez MI, Garg B, Williams SM, Souphanavong J, Schrote K, Darney BG. Availability of pharmacist prescription of contraception in rural areas of Oregon and New Mexico. Contraception 2020;101:210-2. Available at:
  • Stone RH, Rafie S, Ernest D, Scutt B. Emergency contraception access and counseling in urban pharmacies: a comparison between states with and without pharmacist prescribing. Pharmacy. 2020;8(2):105. Available at:
  • Walsh S, Irwin AN, Anderson L, Zehrung C. Development of a pharmacist-provided contraceptive service following passage of Oregon House Bill 2879. J Am Pharm Assoc 2019;59(4S):S112-6. Available at:
  • Wilkinson TA, Rafie S, Clark PD, Carroll AE, Miller E. Evaluating community pharmacy responses about levonorgestrel emergency contraception by mystery caller characteristics. J Adolesc Health 2018;63(1):32-36. Available at:

Outcomes and Cost Savings

  • Rodriguez MI, Darney BG, Edelman AB, Yee K, Anderson LB, McConnell KJ. Pharmacists expand access to reproductive healthcare: PEARL study protocol. BMC Health Serv Res 2019;19(1):207. Available at:
  • Anderson L, Hartung DM, Middleton L, Rodriguez MI. Pharmacist provision of hormonal contraception in the Oregon Medicaid population. Obstet Gynecol 2019;133(6):1231-7. Available at:
  • Gibbs SE, Harvey SM. Pharmacist prescription and acces to hormonal contraception for Medicaid-insured women in Oregon. Contraception. 2020;Epub. Available at:
  • Rodriguez MI, Hersh A, Anderson LB, Hartung DM, Edelman AB. Association of pharmacist prescription of hormonal contraception with unintended pregnancies and Medicaid costs. Obstet Gynecol 2019;133(6):1238-46. Available at:

Reviews and Commentaries

  • Beal JL, Illingworth Plake KS. Social and legislative shaping of access to contraceptives and the pharmacist’s role: A literature review. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2020;16(5):628-636. Available at:
  • Buckingham P, Amos N, Hussainy SY, Mazza D. Scoping review of pharmacy-based initiatives for preventing unintended pregnancy: protocol. BMJ Open. 2020;10(1). Available at:
  • Downing D. Inviting the pharmacist: a model for improved reproductive care access. Contraception 2012;85(1):2-4. Available at:
  • Eckhaus LM, Ti AJ, Curtis KM, et al. Patient and pharmacist perspectives on pharmacist-prescribed contraception: A systematic review. Contraception 2021;103(2):66-74. Available at:
  • Farris KB, Ashwood D, McIntosh J, DiPietro NA, Maderas NM, Landau SC, Swegle J, Solemani O. Preventing unintended pregnancy: pharmacists’ roles in practice and policy via partnerships. J Am Pharm Assoc 2010;50(5):604-12. Available at:
  • Gaffield ME, Kiarie J, Narasimhan ML. Should oral contraceptive pills be available without a prescription? A systematic review of over-the-counter and pharmacy access availability. BMJ Glob Health. 2019;4(3):e001402. Available at:
  • Kooner M, Joseph H, Griffin B, Lynch S, Vest K, Stewart-Lynch A, Weaver K. Hormonal contraception prescribing by pharmacists: 2019 update. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2020;Epub. Available at:
  • Maderas NM, Landau SC, Taylor-McGhee B. The continuum of care: a case for pharmacists as key members of the reproductive health care team. Contraception 2008;77(3):139-42. Available at:
  • Mitchell M, Stauffenberg C, Vernon V, Mospan CM, Shipman AJ, Rafie S. Opposition to pharmacist contraception services: Evidence for rebuttal. Pharmacy 2020;Epub. Available at:
  • Mospan CM. Pharmacists as women’s health providers: Increasing access to contraception and preconception care. J Am Pharm Assoc 2019;59(5):613-4. Available at: 
  • Pfaff A, Rafie S. Expanding pharmacy capacity for patient-centered reproductive health services. Pharmacy. 2020;8(4):236. Available at:
  • Rafie S, Landau S. Opening New Doors to Birth Control: State Efforts to Expand Access to Contraception in Community Pharmacies. Birth Control Pharmacist, 2019. Available at:
  • Smith MC, Wetherbee H, Sharpe TR. The pharmacist and family planning: review and report of a study. Am J Pharm. 1978;150(5):152-9. Available at:
  • Tak CR, Kessler LT, Scott MA, et al. Contraceptive prescribing: Professional standards and legal protections for the pharmacist. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2020;60(2):293-4. Available at:
  • Tak CR, Kessler LT, Scott MA, Gunning KM. Pharmacist-prescribed hormonal contraception: A review of the current landscape. J Am Pharm Assoc 2019;59(5):633-41. Available at:
  • Williams RL, Meredith AH, Ott MA. Expanding adolescent access to hormonal contraception: an update on over-the-counter, pharmacist prescribing, and web-based telehealth approaches. 2018. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2018;30(6):458-464. Available at:
  • Yang YT, Kozhimannil KB, Snowden JM. Pharmacist-Prescribed Birth Control in Oregon and Other States. JAMA. 2016;315(15):1567–1568. Available at:

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